Bugs are every programmer's worst nightmare. At best, we discover bugs during development and testing. But even then, it can take hours of frustrating debugging to fix. At worst, they sneak into the production code base where they wreak havoc and crash software.
This can result in minor disruptions to end users or major life-threatening disasters. In any case, developers should try to find and remove errors as soon as possible.
In this article, we'll look at a Python method for doing this, called linting, and learn about the best Python linter tools and frameworks.
What is Lining and what are Python Linters?
Linting is a form of automatic static code analysis performed to find stylistic and programming errors. Linting is named after a Unix utilityfibersused to examine source code written in the C programming language.
Over the years, linting has outgrown the C programming language and now works for native code in most popular languages, including Python. Python Linters are tools used to perform linting for various Python programs.
Why are linters important in programming?
- Linting reduces errors in production code by checking the code for you. It acts as an extra pair of eyes to catch insects early with less effort. As a result, it improves productivity and code quality.
- It also helps you optimize your code for performance and efficiency by highlighting unused constructs like variables and inaccessible code. This helps reduce the size of the source code and the resulting distributed program.
- It also helps to standardize code by replacing tabs with spaces or vice versa so that the code base is written consistently.
- Linting makes code review easier because it assures the reviewer that certain standards have already been met. This means that the code evaluator does not need to check, for example, whether all variables use snake cases.
There are many tools that can be used to clean up Python code. To choose the best tool, consider the features it offers, such as rule set size, flexibility, cost, and the ability to share rules with other team members.
Considering these and many other aspects, here is a list of the best tools.
Groanis a Python linter made by Astral. It is free and open source. Ruff is written in Rust and is therefore incredibly fast compared to other linters. It's easy to install with a tap and implements over 500 lines of code.
Additionally, Ruff integrates well with editors such asCode visual studio, Neovim, Sublime Text and others. It supports automatic fixes so you can easily fix errors without having to rewrite the code yourself.
At the time of writing, Ruff is on version 0.0.267, which means it may not work properly and there could be significant changes before it reaches version 1.
Sonarlintis a free linting tool implemented as an IDE plugin. It can be installed with most major IDEs such as Visual Studio Code, PyCharm and Eclipse.
Sonarlint lets you integrate with SonarQube or SonarCloud so you can share code standards as a team. This helps standardize your code and adhere to team best practices.
pyTypeis a popular linter created by Google and used by Google in many Python projects. It is free and open source. PyType checks your code and infers types. This means it can check your code for typing errors without having to write explicit type annotations.
PyType also checks code from various files to ensure correctness. It can be installed with pip and used as a command line utility.
PyType is developed and tested on Linux. Therefore, it works best on a Linux computer. On macOS, PyType requires OSX 10.7 or later and XCode 8 or later. It does not currently support Windows unless you run it on the Windows Subsystem for Linux.
encryptionis a paid linting tool with a free plan for open source developers. It can help identify problems in your code, including vulnerabilities and bugs.
Codacy allows you to set code standards for your organization that are used across teams and projects. You can also learn about common code problems and how to fix them. In addition, it also offers built-in notes.
Codacy can also be integrated into the workflow using tools such as Git,So, Slack, and git providers like GitLab and BitBucket. It supports more than 40 of the most popular programming languages.
PyLintis a popular linting tool in Python. It is free and open source. PyLint can enforce coding standards, such as limiting line lengths and matching variable names. In addition, it also detects errors such as modules not imported.
You can customize PyLint with configuration files. It integrates well with Emacs, Vim, Eclipse, Spyder and TextMate. PyLint can be automated with tools like Apycot, Hudson or Jenkins to build CI/CD pipelines. You can use package managers on Linux or Pip on Windows and macOS to install PyLint.
Petal 8is a free and open source python linter. Checks PEP8, pyflakes and cyclic complexity. It is generally very accurate and generates a low number of false positives. This results in better code overall and a better development environment.
You can add Flake8 to yoursPython IDEor an editor like PyCharm or Sublime Text. Flake8 supports both Python 2 and Python 3. You can also run it from the command line or as a Python package.
Flake8 is customizable as it allows you to pass options to commands. To reuse options, Flake8 allows you to store them in a configuration file.
Blackis an uncompromising and stubborn Python. As a result, it is fast and deterministic. It is deterministic because it uses its own internal standards and implements them in projects.
This ensures that black underlined code looks the same regardless of design. Black is one of the most popular tools used by well-known open source projects such as Pytest, Django and SQLAlchemy.
Organizations like Facebook, Mozilla, and Tesla use Black for their Python projects. Black is an open source project.
autopep8is a popular Python linter that fixes code to conform to the PEP8 style guide, the official style guide for Python code. Unlike some other codelinters, Autopep8 focuses on correcting code formatting and does not change the logic or structure of the code.
Autopep8 also offers a number of configuration options to customize the behavior. You can specify layout settings, enable or disable certain rules, control the line length limit, and configure other aspects according to your project's requirements. Like most linters, it integrates well with existing IDEs and editors.
PyCheckeris a python linter that helps identify problems such as inaccessible code, unused variables, and unassigned parameters. It helps developers find bugs faster and makes code easier to maintain.
It can be used from the command line, which helps create entire projects with a single command. This is because it can recursively loop through all the files in a directory and create them. It can also be used in Python code and can analyze code written in any style. Compliant with PEP8 and other formatting guidelines.
Pylamais a cover for various single liners. It integrates with several well-known linters such as Pylint, PyFlakes, pycodestyle, Mypy and others. Using multiple links, it provides comprehensive code quality analysis and enforces a wide range of coding standards.
It is often integrated with continuous integration systems such as GitHub Actions. Pylama also runs from the command line and integrates with most IDEs and code editors.
This article covers linting and common tools you can use to fluff your Python project. Python linting tools are a popular part of Python development tools and improve productivity.
Then checkCSV alwaysconvert, format, validate and more.
mypy vs flake8: What are the differences? Developers describe mypy as "Optional static typing for Python". Optional static typing for Python. On the other hand, flake8 is detailed as "The modular source code checker: pep8, pyflakes and co".Which Python linter is best? ›
- Flake8 is my personal favorite these days. It's fast and has a low rate of false positives. ...
- Pylint is another good choice. It takes a little more effort to set up than Flake8 and also triggers more false positives.
mypy vs flake8: What are the differences? Developers describe mypy as "Optional static typing for Python". Optional static typing for Python. On the other hand, flake8 is detailed as "The modular source code checker: pep8, pyflakes and co".What is linter for code style? ›
Linting is the automated checking of your source code for programmatic and stylistic errors. This is done by using a lint tool (otherwise known as linter). A lint tool is a basic static code analyzer.Does Python have a linter? ›
Linting highlights syntactical and stylistic problems in your Python source code, which often helps you identify and correct subtle programming errors or unconventional coding practices that can lead to errors.Should I use Flake8 or Pylint? ›
Pylint tends to be slower than Pyflakes and flake8 as well as give more false positives. I'd use Pylint if you want to be especially thorough with your code.What is the most popular Python code formatter? ›
Introduction. Autopep8 and Black are both great tools to auto-format your Python code to conform to the PEP 8 style guide. Black has 30.4k stars on GitHub and is probably the most popular tool of its kind, while autopep8 has 4.2k stars.Does mypy make Python faster? ›
Mypyc, available in the mypy package, lets you compile Python modules into C extensions. With the right type hints, ordinary Python code can be sped up by anywhere from two to twenty times, or even more, depending on the job at hand. Learn in this video how to get started using Mypyc for low-effort performance boosts.What is the difference between Pytype and MYPY in Python? ›
Pytype. Pytype, created by Google, differs from the likes of Mypy in using inference instead of just type descriptors. In other words, Pytype attempts to determine types by analyzing code flow, rather than relying strictly on type annotations.What are alternatives to Flake8? ›
- PyLint. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux. ...
- PEP8. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux. ...
- PyFlakes. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux. ...
- Ruff. Free • Open Source. Mac. Linux. Windows. ...
- PyChecker. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux. ...
- Pyright. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux. ...
- PEP 257. Free • Open Source. Mac. Windows. Linux.
Black is an autoformatter, not a Python linter or interpreter.How do I improve the quality of Python code? ›
- The indentation tyranny. Indentation refers to the spaces at the beginning of a code line. ...
- Maximum line length. ...
- Blank lines. ...
- Use linters and autoformaters. ...
- Keep in mind principles. ...
- Use logs instead of prints. ...
- Use the logging module. ...
- Choose the logging level wisely.
Pylint (this is the default linter used)Does PyCharm use a linter? ›
PyLint, a widely used tool that checks for errors in Python code and encourages good Python coding patterns, is integrated into Visual Studio for Python projects.How does pylint work in Python? ›
Pylint is a static code checker, meaning it can analyse your code without actually running it. Pylint checks for errors, tries to enforce a coding standard, and tries to enforce a coding style.What is the replacement of pylint? ›
- FusionReactor APM.
- Fortify Static Code Analyzer.
- Veracode Application Security Platform.
Sonarlint is a code linter and pylint is too. I haven't used sonarlint, but it seems that analyzes the code a bit deeper that pylint does. From my experience, pylint only follows a set of rules (that you can modify, by the way), while sonarlint goes a bit further analyzing the inner workings of your code.What is the difference between Pychecker and pylint? ›
A major difference between Pylint and Pychecker is that Pylint checks for style issues, while Pychecker explicitly does not. There are a few other differences, such as the fact that Pylint does not import live modules while Pychecker does (see 6.2 Why does Pychecker catch problems with imports that Pylint doesn't?).What is the most complex Python code ever? ›
Openstack (the cloud architecture adopted by NASA and CERN) is reasonably the most complex Python code ever: it counts 2'400'000 lines.
The most popular IDEs for experienced Python developers are PyCharm and Visual Studio Code. PyCharm is a full-featured IDE that offers many features, including code completion, code navigation, refactoring, and debugging.Can Python become as fast as C++? ›
C++ is faster than Python because it is statically typed, which leads to a faster compilation of code. Python is slower than C++, it supports dynamic typing, and it also uses the interpreter, which makes the process of compilation slower.What is the fastest data structure in Python? ›
Space-time tradeoff. The fastest way to repeatedly lookup data with millions of entries in Python is using dictionaries. Because dictionaries are the built-in mapping type in Python thereby they are highly optimized.Which Python interpreter is fastest? ›
PyPy aims to be a faster drop-in alternative to CPython that requires no change in the source code. Thanks to its JIT compilation and better design choices, PyPy is generally much more performant than CPython.What is the difference between TypedDict and NamedTuple? ›
NamedTuple s can be used as tuple s, e.g. fun(*userTuple) , a, b = userTuple . TypedDict can be used as dict 's, e.g. fun(**userDict) . Behaviours above are also in contrast to dataclass es, where fields typically need to be referenced explicitly - if not resorting to dataclasses. astuple() , .Is Mypy part of Python? ›
“Mypy is an optional static type checker for Python that aims to combine the benefits of dynamic (or 'duck') typing and static typing. Mypy combines the expressive power and convenience of Python with a powerful type system and compile-time type checking.” A little background on the Mypy project.What is the difference between TypeError and ValueError Python? ›
In Python, a ValueError occurs when a correct argument type but an incorrect value is supplied to a function. This type of inaccuracy is most common in mathematical operations. A TypeError, as opposed to a ValueError, is raised when an operation is performed that is using an incorrect or unsupported object type.What is alternative to PyScripter? ›
- Eric Python IDE. All. Top Pro. Integrated python debugger. ...
- Wing Python IDE. All. Top Pro. Built-in debugger. ...
- Spacemacs with Python layer. All. Top Pro. ...
- PyCharm Community Edition. All. Top Pro. ...
- PaizaCloud IDE. All. Top Pro. ...
- Neovim. All. Top Pro. ...
- Geany. All. Top Pro. ...
- Spyder. All. Top Pro.
- Open your Linux terminal or shell.
- Type “ pip install pyflakes ” (without quotes), hit Enter.
- If it doesn't work, try "pip3 install pyflakes" or “ python -m pip install pyflakes “.
- Wait for the installation to terminate successfully.
Flake8 is a Python linting tool that checks your Python codebase for errors, styling issues and complexity. The Flake8 library is built upon 3 tools: PyFlakes - checks your Python codebase for errors. McCabe - checks your Python codebase for complexity.
Pylint is a tool for linting code. Linting is the process of checking your code for basic stylistic mistakes. It doesn't verify that your code works, it simply checks that it looks as good as possible and is readable by others. Black is a really useful code formatting tool maintained by the Python Software Foundation.Is PEP8 a linter? ›
Pycodestyle (Formerly PEP8) is the official linter tool to check the python code against the style conventions of PEP8 python. To install it: pip install pycodestyle . We will create a test script file test_script.py and use it as an example for all the linters.What does PyCharm use for linting? ›
- One Statement of Code per Line.
- Explicit code.
- Passing args to Functions.
- Return Statements.
- Writing Idiomatic Python.
- Access a Dictionary Element.
- Filtering a List.
- Updating Values in a List.
Description. PyNose can be used inside the IDE to study the test smells within a specific opened project. This can help python developers avoid test smells in their code. When you open a project in PyCharm, a number of inspections will be available for usage.How do I sharpen my Python skills? ›
- Step 1: Practice Algorithm And Data Structures. ...
- Step 2: Read Codes From Other People. ...
- Step 3: Participate In Programming Competitions. ...
- Step 4: Don't Stick To One Language. ...
- Step 5: Build A Project.
At the core, Wikipedia defines them as tools to analyze “source code to flag programming errors, bugs, stylistic errors, and suspicious constructs.” Linting can be seen as a static analysis that happens outside of a compiler; that is, they process and examine source code without compiling it into a binary.Why use linter code? ›
The use of linters helps to diagnose and fix technical issues—e.g. code smells—in the code. As a result, fewer defects make their way to production. Readable, maintainable, and more consistent code. Linters can help teams achieve a more readable and consistent style, through the enforcement of its rules.What is the difference between linter and compiler? ›
A linter could also warn you if your code contains commonly known security flaws or code smells. Compiling is parsing code to verify that the syntax is correct and convert the code to a different language (generally a faster one).What is pylint and PyCharm? ›
pylint is a code analyzer tool that checks your code and detects any style, logic, and usage problems. It might be a great addition to the code validation features available with PyCharm. Press Ctrl+Alt+S to open the IDE settings and select Project | Python Interpreter. Click.
PyCharm Community Edition is excellent for developers who wish to get more experience with Python. It also provides access to other languages such as Rust, Dart, HTML, and XML. It utilizes the web tool kit called PYQT for the creation of large-scale Graphical User Interface (GUI) projects.Are linters necessary? ›
Use Linters to Write Quality Code
Linters are important in every programming project, whether it's a solo or collaborative one. Linters can identify issues early on and even fix some automatically on your behalf without running your code.
Pycodestyle (Formerly PEP8) is the official linter tool to check the python code against the style conventions of PEP8 python. Pylint is a python linter which checks the source code and also acts as a bug and quality checker. It has more verification checks and options than just PEP8(Python style guide).How to use PyChecker? ›
To use PyChecker, pass options and the python source files (or packages) you want to check on the command line: pychecker [options] file1.py file2.py ... Note: On Windows, use pychecker.How to use flake8 in Python? ›
- flake8 path/to/code/to/check. py # or flake8 path/to/code/ ...
- flake8 --select E123,W503 path/to/code/ Alternatively, if you want to add a specific warning or error to ignore:
- flake8 --extend-ignore E203,W234 path/to/code/
Pyflakes analyzes programs and detects various errors. It works by parsing the source file, not importing it, so it is safe to use on modules with side effects. It's also much faster. It is available on PyPI and it supports all active versions of Python: 3.6+.What is the difference between pylint and PEP8? ›
Pycodestyle (Formerly PEP8) is the official linter tool to check the python code against the style conventions of PEP8 python. Pylint is a python linter which checks the source code and also acts as a bug and quality checker. It has more verification checks and options than just PEP8(Python style guide).What is the difference between Pylint and black? ›
Pylint is a tool for linting code. Linting is the process of checking your code for basic stylistic mistakes. It doesn't verify that your code works, it simply checks that it looks as good as possible and is readable by others. Black is a really useful code formatting tool maintained by the Python Software Foundation.Which linter does PyCharm use? ›
It helps prevent things like syntax errors, typos, bad formatting, incorrect styling, etc. It saves our time as a developer.
Yes. The coding style required for standard library modules is documented as PEP 8. No mention of anything that would take priority over PEP 8. There are other style guidelines written by third parties, but PEP 8 is still the official style guide.What is the difference between formatter and linter? ›
Linting is the automated checking of source code for programmatic and stylistic errors. This checking is performed by a static code analysis tool called a linter. A code formatter, however, is a tool concerned with formatting source code so that it strictly adheres to a pre-configured set of rules.What is the difference between ESLint and prettier as formatter? ›
ESlint is not only a code formatter, it also helps developers to find coding errors. For Example, ESLint will give you a warning if you use a variable without declaring it. Prettier doesn't have such an ability. Also, ESLint will let you know what's wrong with your code formatting and give you options to fix the issue.Which is best PyScripter or PyCharm? ›
In the question“What are the best Python IDEs or editors?” PyCharm Professional Edition is ranked 1st while PyScripter is ranked 14th. The most important reason people chose PyCharm Professional Edition is: PyCharm has CVS, Git, Subversion and Mercurial integration.What is linter in Django? ›
A linter, is a static code analysis tool used to flag programming errors, bugs, stylistic errors, and suspicious constructs, such as pyflakes, pylint, and others. This grid lists linters that have features specifically for Django.What is PyFlakes in Python? ›
A simple program which checks Python source files for errors. Pyflakes analyzes programs and detects various errors. It works by parsing the source file, not importing it, so it is safe to use on modules with side effects. It's also much faster.Is flake8 and PEP8 same? ›
Flake8 combines two other projects that are significant on their own: pep8 and PyFlakes. If flake8 is doing something you don't like, it is quite likely that the problem lies in one of those other projects. You can run them separately to see if they are the cause of your difficulties.What is the difference between black and autopep8? ›
Summary Black and autopep8 are two popular code formatters for Python, both of which are open source and have been around since the early 2000s. Black is the uncompromising Python code formatter, while autopep8 is an unofficial, yet popular, tool that automatically formats Python code to conform to PEP 8.